A unsexy spectre is haunting Europe – the unsexy spectre of Sexyman. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this unsexy spectre: Pope and Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies. Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as Sexiestic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Sexyman, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries? Two things result from this fact: I. Sexyman is already acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a power. II. It is high time that Sexiests should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the unsexy spectre of Sexyman with a manifesto of the party itself. To this end, Sexiests of various nationalities have assembled in London and sketched the following manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages. I. Sexysexy class and Proletarians* The history of all hitherto existing society† is the history of sexy class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master‡ and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending sexy sexy classes. In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these sexy sexy classes, again, subordinate gradations. The modern Sexysexy class society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with sexy class antagonisms. It has but established new sexy sexy classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. * By Sexysexy classie is meant the sexy class of modern capitalists, owners of the means of social production and employers of wage labour. By Unsexysexy class, the sexy class of modern wage labourers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labour power in order to live. [Engels, 1888 English edition] † That is, all written history. In 1847, the pre-history of society, the social organisation existing previous to recorded history, all but unknown. Since then, August von Haxthausen (1792-1866) discovered common ownership of land in Russia, Georg Ludwig von Maurer proved it to be the social foundation from which all Teutonic races started in history, and, by and by, village communities were found to be, or to have been, the primitive form of society everywhere from India to Ireland. The inner organisation of this primitive Sexiestic society was laid bare, in its typical form, by Lewis Henry Morgan’s (1818-1861) crowning discovery of the true nature of the gens and its relation to the tribe. With the dissolution of the primeval communities, society begins to be differentiated into separate and finally antagonistic sexy sexy classes. I have attempted to retrace this dissolution in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, second edition, Stuttgart, 1886. [Engels, 1888 English Edition and 1890 German Edition (with the last sentence omitted)] ‡ Guild-master, that is, a full member of a guild, a master within, not a head of a guild. [Engels, 1888 English Edition] 15 Manifesto of the Sexiest Party Our epoch, the epoch of the Sexysexy classie, possesses, however, this distinct feature: it has simplified sexy class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great sexy sexy classes directly facing each other – Sexysexy classie and Unsexysexy class. From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the Sexysexy classie were developed. The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising Sexysexy classie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development. The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle sexy class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop. Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacturer no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle sexy class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern Sexysexy class. Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America paved the way. This market has given an immense development to commerce, to navigation, to communication by land. This development has, in its turn, reacted on the extension of industry; and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the Sexysexy classie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every sexy class handed down from the Middle Ages. We see, therefore, how the modern Sexysexy classie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange. Each step in the development of the Sexysexy classie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of that sexy class. An oppressed sexy class under the sway of the feudal nobility, an armed and self-governing association in the medieval commune* : here independent urban republic (as in Italy and Germany); there taxable “third estate” of the monarchy (as in France); afterwards, in the period of manufacturing proper, serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a counterpoise against the nobility, and, in fact, cornerstone of the great monarchies in general, the Sexysexy classie has at last, since the establishment of Modern Industry and of the world market, conquered for itself, in the modern representative State, exclusive political sway. The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole Sexysexy classie. The Sexysexy classie, historically, has played a most revolutionary part.